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SETTING UP A PRIVATE LIMITED COMPANY IN THE UK

在英國設立私有有限公司

Private Limited Companies need to be registered with Companies House. This is known as ‘incorporation’. You need the following:

私有有限公司需在英國公司注冊署注冊。即所謂的“公司注冊”。您需要以下資料:

  • A company name 一個公司名稱
  • an address for the company 一個公司地址
  • at least one director 至少一名董事
  • at least one shareholder 至少一名股東
  • the agreement of all initial shareholders (‘subscribers’) to create the company - known as a ‘memorandum of association’ 初創股東協議(簽署者)-也被稱爲“公司備忘錄”
  • details of the company’s shares and the rights attached to them - known as a ‘statement of capital’公司股份和相應權益的細節-被稱爲“資本聲明”
  • written rules about how the company is run are known as ‘articles of association’公司如何運營的書面規則,也被稱爲“公司章程)

Once the company is registered you’ll get a ‘Certificate of Incorporation’. This confirms the company legally exists and shows the company number and date of formation.一旦公司注冊完成,您將獲得“公司注冊證書”。這證實了公司的合法存在,以及顯示公司注冊號以及注冊日期。

Your company will also need to register for Corporation Tax within 3 months of starting to do business.

您的公司還需要在開始經營的3個月內注冊公司稅。

Company name公司名稱

You must choose a name for your business if you’re setting up a private limited company (Ltd)

如果您注冊私有有限公司,您需要爲您的公司選擇一個名稱。

· Your name can’t be exactly the same as another registered company’s name – we will do a search on the Companies House register to see if a name’s been taken.您的公司名稱不能與其他已注冊的公司一模一樣-我們會在公司注冊署查詢您的名稱是否已經被注冊。

· Your registered company can’t be similar to (‘too like’ or ‘same as’) another registered name.您注冊的公司名不能與其他已經注冊的名稱類似(“太像”或“相同)。

· You may be able to get permission from an existing registered company to use a name that’s the same or similar to theirs if your company is part of the same group.您可能可以從已經注冊的公司處獲得許可而使用與該公司相近或相同的名稱,假如你們公司與該公司同屬一個集團。

· Your name also can’t: 您的公司名稱也不可以:

o contain a ‘sensitive’ word or expression unless you get permission

含有“敏感“字或詞,除非有特許

o suggest a connection with government or local authorities

暗示與政府或當地機構有聯系

o be offensive

侮辱性的

When registered, there are rules about how and where you must display your company name 注冊完成後,將會有關于如何以及在哪裏必須顯示您公司名的規定。

Registering a company or partnership name or using a business name doesn’t mean it’s protected as a trade mark - you have to register trademarks separately.

注冊公司或合夥企業的名稱或使用公司名並不意味著這是一種商標保護-您需要另外注冊商標。

You may still want to check the trademark register before registering your name to make sure you can register it as a trademark.

您可能還需要在注冊您的公司名時先確認您的名稱是否可以注冊爲商標。

The names of most private limited companies in the UK must end in either ‘Limited’ or ‘Ltd’ or the Welsh equivalents ‘Cyfyngedig’ and ‘Cyf’ if you registered the company in Wales.

大部分英國的私有有限公司的名稱需要以“Limited”或“Ltd” 或如果您在威爾士注冊,則爲威爾士語的“ Cyfyngedig”和“Cyf”。

You can trade using a different name to your registered name. This is known as a ‘business name’.在交易時您可以使用與注冊名字不同的名字。這就是所謂的“貿易名稱”

Business names mustn’t: 貿易名稱不能包含以下:

· include ‘limited’ or ‘Ltd’ “Limited”或“Ltd”(有限)

· be the same as an existing trademark 跟現有的一個商標一模一樣

· contain a ‘sensitive’ word or expression unless you get permission

· 含“敏感”字或詞,除非您獲得許可

Company address公司地址

Your registered office address is where official communications will be sent, eg letters from Companies House and HM Revenue and Customs (HMRC).

您的注冊辦公室地址將是官方通信地址,所有的官方文件都將寄送到此地址,如來自公司注冊署以及英國稅務和海關總署(HMRC)的信件。

The address must be:地址必須是:

  • a physical address 一個實際地址
  • in the same country your company is registered in, eg a company registered in Scotland must have a registered address in Scotland
  • 在您公司注冊的所在國家 如:在蘇格蘭注冊的公司必須有蘇格蘭的注冊地址。

You can use a PO Box but must include a physical address and postcode after the PO Box number.您可以使用郵政信箱,但是必須包括一個實際地址和郵政郵箱號碼後面的郵政編碼。

You can use your home address or the address of the person who will manage your Corporation Tax if these addresses meet the rules above.

您可以使用您的家庭住址;或使用管理您公司稅務的人的地址如這些地址符合以上規定。

Your company address will be publicly available on the register

您的公司地址將在注冊時被公布。

Appoint directors and a company secretary任命董事和公司秘書

Your company must have at least one director. Directors are legally responsible for running the company and making sure company accounts and reports are done properly.

您的公司必須至少有一位董事。董事在法律上負責運營該公司,並確保公司的賬目和報表正確完成。

A director must be 16 or over and not be disqualified from being a director.

董事必須超過16周歲,且具備董事資格。

Another company can be a director, but at least one of your company’s directors must be a person.

另外一家公司可以爲董事,但是至少一位董事必須是自然人。

Directors’ names and addresses are publicly available from Companies House.

董事的姓名和地址將在公司注冊署公布。

You don’t need a company secretary for a private limited company. Some companies use them to take on some of the director’s responsibilities. 私有有限公司不需要公司秘書。有些公司任命公司秘書以承擔董事的一些責任。

The company secretary can be a director but can’t be:

公司秘書可以是一名董事,但是不可以是:

  • the company’s auditor公司的審計
  • an ‘undischarged bankrupt’ - unless they have permission from the court
  • “未解除破産”-除非他們獲得法院的許可

Even if you have a company secretary, the directors are legally responsible for the company. 即使您是一名公司秘書,董事還是法律上對公司負責。

Shares and shareholders股份和股東

A company limited by shares must have at least one shareholder, which can be a director. There’s no maximum number of shareholders.一個股份有限公司必須有至少一名股東,可以是董事。股東數量無上限。

Shareholders are owners of the company and they have certain rights, eg directors may need shareholders to vote and agree changes to the company. 股東是該公司的所有者,他們持有一定權力,如董事可能需要股東投票並同意公司的變更。

When you register a company you need to make a ‘statement of capital’. This includes: 當您注冊公司是需要“資本聲明”,包括:

  • the number of shares of each type the company has and their total value - known as the company’s ‘share capital’
  • 公司每種類型股份的數量和總價值-被稱爲公司的“股本”
  • the names and addresses of all shareholders - known as ‘subscribers’ or ‘members’ 所有股東的姓名和地址-被稱爲“簽署者”或“成員”

Example: A company that issues 500 shares at £1 each has a share capital of £500.

例如:一家公司發行500股,每股1英鎊,總股本爲500英鎊。

Your statement of capital also contains information about shares known as ‘prescribed particulars’. 您的資本聲明還包括股份的信息,被稱爲“訂明詳情”。

Your prescribed particulars say what rights each type (known as ‘class’) of share gives the shareholder, and must include:您的訂明詳情說明每種類型股份股東所擁有的權利(被稱爲“類別”),必須包括:

  • what share of dividends they get 分紅比例
  • whether they can exchange (‘redeem’) their shares for money

他們能否交換(贖回) 他們的股份爲金錢

  • whether they can vote on certain company matters

他們是否可以對公司一定事務有投票權

  • how many votes they get
  • 他們的能得到多少票投票權

Memorandum and articles of association備忘錄和公司章程

When you register your company you need: 當您注冊公司時需要:

  • a ‘memorandum of association’ - a legal statement signed by all initial shareholders agreeing to form the company 一份“公司備忘錄”-由所有初創股東簽署的用以同意創建公司的法律文書。
  • ‘articles of association’ - written rules about running the company agreed by the shareholders, directors and the company secretary公司章程-由股東、董事和公司秘書一致同意的公司規章制度的文書。

The exact wording of the statement can’t be changed. Normally a standard memorandum of association is valid.聲明的准確詞句不能更改。通常標准的公司備忘錄是有效的。

Most companies use standard articles (known as ‘model articles’). 大部分公司使用標准公司章程(被稱爲“範例章程”)

Register for Corporation Tax 公司稅注冊

After you’ve registered your company with Companies House, you’ll need to register it for Corporation Tax. However, this can also be done by your accountant.

您在英國公司注冊署注冊完成後,還需要注冊公司稅。然後,公司稅注冊需要您的會計師來辦理。

It is necessary to register for tax within 3 months of starting to do business. ‘Doing business’ includes buying, selling, employing someone, advertising, renting a property orcertain other activities.

您需要在開始業務的3個月內注冊公司稅。“開始業務”包括采購、銷售、雇傭員工、發布廣告、租賃房屋或一定得其他活動。

You may get a penalty if you register late.如您未在規定時間內完成注冊,將會被處罰。

Annual reporting procedures年度報告程序

After the end of its financial year, your private limited company must prepare:

一個財政年度結束後,您的私有有限公司必須准備:

  • full (‘statutory’) annual accounts完整的(法定)年度賬目
  • a Company Tax Return 公司納稅申報表

You need your accounts and tax return to meet deadlines for filing with Companies House and HM Revenue and Customs (HMRC).您的帳目和納稅申報表需在英國公司注冊署和英國稅務和海關總署(HMRC)最後期限前完成。

You can also use them to work out how much Corporation Tax to pay. 您可以使用他們來計算您需要支付多少公司稅。

Your accounting period for Corporation Tax is the time covered by your Company Tax Return. It’s normally the same 12 months as the company financial year covered by your annual accounts. 您的公司稅會計期是指您公司納稅申報的時間。通常跟您公司年度賬目所涉及的財政年度一樣的12個月。

You can file with Companies House and HMRC together or separately. This is often dealt with by your accountant. Note that there are penalties for filing late with Companies House and HMRC.您可以同時或分別向公司注冊署和英國稅務及海關總署申報。通常是由您的會計師來處理。請注意,如未按時向公司注冊署和英國稅務及海關總署申報將會被處罰。

公司注冊費用 請聯系pam@connectchina.co.uk